This post comes to you from EcoArtScotland
The monographÂ Marlene Creates: Places, Paths, and PausesÂ was published last year to coincide with a touring retrospective of the work of Marlene Creates, co-curated by Susan Gibson Garvey and Andrea Kunard. The exhibition was organised by the Beaverbrook Art Gallery in partnership with Dalhousie Art Gallery, it launched in September 2017 and is touring to different locations across Canada until 2020.
This beautifully produced monograph is my first introduction to the work of the Canadian environmental artist Marlene Creates (pronounced â€œKreetsâ€). Reading the book acquainted me with the breadth of Createsâ€™ â€˜discreetâ€™ practice (p.15) through many crisply reproduced photographs, showing details and exhibition installations of her work. The photographs are accompanied by Createsâ€™ own commentary, giving succinct insights into some of the motivations and processes behind her different bodies of work. Because photography has been the main medium for Creates to document and share her work with others, it translates well onto the printed page.
Createsâ€™ work is clustered into chronologically ordered bodies of work as follows:
- Landworks, 1979-1985, Works based on my responses as a visitor to places;
- Works with Memory Maps, 1986-1991, Works based on the relationship of people I met to their own places;
- Signs of Our Time, 1992-2003, Works with signage about public notices, official boundaries and prohibitions;
- Transition, Transitional works in the midst of a decade working with public signs;
- Works from Blast Hole Pond Road (ongoing since 2002), a multi year â€œslowâ€ engagement with the six-acre patch of boreal forest where I live.(examples of many of the works discussed can be viewed on Marlene Createsâ€™Â website) You can see the exhibition at the Beaverbrook Art Gallery thanks to a video made by Jon Pedersen, a filmmaker in Fredericton.
Certain bodies of work come across particularly well within the context of the book. These includeÂ Sleeping Places, Newfoundland, 1982, where her haunting series of photographs show the squashed vegetation left by the sleeping imprint of Createsâ€™ own body; and the works where Createsâ€™ hand is pressed against the surface of standing stones and trees inÂ A Hand to Standing Stones, Scotland, 1983Â and Larch, Spruce, Fir, Birch, Hand, Blast Hole Pond Road, Newfoundland, 2007. The format of the book is large enough to see the detail of crushed foliage in the Sleeping Places series and the texture of stone, lichen, bark and skin in the Hand to Standing Stones and Larch, Spruce, Fir, Birch, Hand series. These bodies of work communicate a strong sense of the equality of relationship with nature that Createsâ€™ work seeks to explore â€“ the framing of the photographs shows the equal pressing of lichen-encrusted stone/bark to hand as hand to stone/bark.
This comprehensive overview of Createsâ€™ work is interlaced with critical essays, each exploring a different aspect of the artistsâ€™ practice. The essays are written by the curators/editors, the poet Don McKay, the art historian Joan M. Schwartz, and the author Robert Macfarlane. I completed the book feeling as though I had enjoyed slowly wandering around the rooms of the Createsâ€™ retrospective, engaging in different conversations after each room, each showing me the work through a different lens and offering rich insights into Createsâ€™ thoughtful practice.
The first of these essays,Â Written in the Land, Present in the Place, is by Susan Gibson Garvey. In this essay Gibson Garvey maps the main themes of Createsâ€™ work from the earliest gestures in the landscape to her most recent immersive work in the six acres of boreal forest that surround her home. It is a very readable, well-paced essay, offering insightful commentary around many of the developing themes that run through Createsâ€™ practice. I have explored this essay in greater detail than the others as it is here that we first become acquainted with many of the ideas returned to in subsequent essays.
Gibson Garvey starts by contrasting Createsâ€™ â€˜ecologically sensitive art practice,â€™ with the work of â€˜more immediately spectacular,â€™ environmental photographers such as Edward Burtynsky (p.15). She argues that it is the â€˜acute awareness,â€™ â€˜formal restraint,â€™ and â€˜understated wit,â€™ of Createsâ€™ practice that give the work its strength (p.15). As an example of Createsâ€™ â€˜discreetâ€™ art practice Gibson Garvey describes one of Createsâ€™ early interventions,Â Stone Ground Drawing: Wave Patterns, Lake Nipissing, 1986, where Creates arranged pebbles so that they mirrored the patterns in the waves approaching the shore. The work lasted until the next high tide when the pebbles were scattered. Gibson Garvey quotes Createsâ€™ statement that the intention of this work was to draw attention to the waves themselves: â€˜â€œWhat I would like people to notice the most when they look at my sculpture is, in fact, not the sculpture but the waves.â€â€™ (p.16)
The essay makes a convincing argument for Createsâ€™ work to be seen in relation to feminist earth/body practices of artists such as Ana Mendieta. In herÂ Paper Stones and WaterÂ series Creates lays a roll of absorbent paper in different environments, where it is subject to change through encountering the elements â€“ blown by the wind or splattered by raindrops. Gibson Garvey argues that â€˜simplicity, economy, seriality, and [â€¦] sufficiency,â€™ are key to Createsâ€™ practice, and frames the fragileÂ Paper Stones and WaterÂ series as an â€˜act of resistance, on behalf both of the environment and of womenâ€™ (p.16). Creates herself states that she was working â€˜in deliberate opposition to large-scale earthworks â€“ high impact interventions made in the land with excavators and bulldozers in the 1960â€™s and 70â€™sâ€™ (p.13).
This argument is given weight when Gibson Garvey emphasises the importance, for Creates, of seeing the particular in the landscape rather than â€˜scoping a sceneâ€™: â€˜The hand must touch, the voice must utter, the body must be present. We are in the land, inseparable from that which provides the nourishment and raw materials on which we depend. There is no â€œout thereâ€ there, because out there is still us.â€™ (p.20)
Gibson Garvey cites Rebecca Solnitâ€™s discussion of Createsâ€™ work to describe the important shift in Createsâ€™ practice â€“ her growing understanding of the layers of nature and culture that exist in every landscape, summed up by Solnitâ€™s sentence, â€˜â€œMost landscapes are also territories.â€â€™ (p.16) This shift is clearly seen in the works exploring the relationship of relocated, elderly Labradorians to their remembered homelands inÂ The Distance Between Two Points is Measured in Memories, Laborador, 1988. Once again Gibson Garvey is here highlighting the quiet politics of Createsâ€™ work â€“ â€˜contradicting political assertions about the â€œemptinessâ€ of Labrador.â€™ (p.19)
There is a very succinct summary of Createsâ€™ description of the different phases of her practice within this essay. Creates describes her landworks as works made â€˜â€œin the first person,â€â€™ the shift to working with other peoples memories of place results in work made â€˜â€œin the second person.â€â€™ Createsâ€™ questioning of cultural assumptions about places in the signs projects is described as work â€˜â€œin the third personâ€â€™. Following this summary Gibson Garvey argues that Createsâ€™ most recent work, made in her six-acre, boreal forest home, returns to â€˜â€œfirst personâ€â€™ and also creates the position of â€˜no personâ€™ in the work where her trail camera takes photographs when triggered by the movement of animals (p.18). Gibson Garvey argues that Creates, in her boreal forest home, is â€˜intent on addressing nature as one subjectivity to another,â€™ and relates this intention to the thought of Martin Buber. In particular she is interested in Buberâ€™s â€œI-Thouâ€ concept in relation to Createsâ€™ work, stating that â€˜it could be argued that Creates has been saying â€œThouâ€ to nature for some considerable time.â€™ (p.19) This argument is taken one stage further in what Gibson Garvey describes as Createsâ€™ â€˜reversal of the gaze,â€™ inÂ Water Flowing to the Sea Captured at the Speed of Light, Blast Hole Pond River, Newfoundland, 2002-2003, where a camera placed underwater takes photos of the artist, simulating the eye of the river (p.20).
Finally Gibson Garvey points to the part language plays in Createsâ€™Â The Boreal Poetry Garden. At the start of this project Creates wrote short poems and photographed them in the places that had inspired their writing. Now the poems are only spoken to small audiences in situ. Gibson Garvey states that this may result in a â€˜privilegedâ€™ audience. However, this is balanced by the ethics of Createsâ€™ practice, bound to â€˜specificityâ€™ and not â€˜populismâ€™. The question of privilege in relation to the boreal forest work is explored later in this review.
The Gibson Garvey essay is followed by the images ofÂ Landworks. These include theÂ Paper, Stones and WaterÂ series,Â Sleeping Places, Newfoundland 1982Â andÂ A Hand to Standing Stones, Scotland 1983. Don McKayâ€™s poemÂ Sleeping PlacesÂ is included within this section along with his short reflection on Createsâ€™ work â€“Â Some Thoughts on Sleeping Places. The poem mirrors the understated aesthetic of Createsâ€™ work in its short lines and simplicity. It maps some of the associations that the poet experienced through his encounter with the work from the delicate to the sinister. The poem acts as an invitation to experience Createsâ€™ work for oneself â€“ to let the mind travel with the imagery in different directions and not just look to where the essays signpost the reader.
The poem starts and ends with the question â€˜what is nothing doingâ€™ [sic] which McKay intends as an â€˜ungettable riddleâ€™ or Zen koan. He writes about his interest in koans and Taoist poetry in his reflection onÂ Sleeping Places, saying of the old Taoist poets:
Their â€œbowsâ€ to the wilderness involved a slightness and subtlety of gesture that would be good preparation for experiencing works likeÂ Sleeping Places, Newfoundland, 1982. (p.49)
McKay states that Createsâ€™ work holds a strong connection to Taoist thought, particularly in relation to what he describes as â€˜an engaged â€œspiritual ecologyâ€â€™. He describes the important difference between this â€˜true ecologyâ€™ and the â€˜conventional humanism of Romanticism, which tends to focus on the human emotional response to nature rather than to bow toward nature itself.â€™ He concludes:
We need more such bows if a true ecology is to become widespread. I think of Tu Fuâ€™s line â€œI inhabit my absence,â€ which could well serve as a subtitle for Createsâ€™Â Sleeping Places. (p.49)
Don McKayâ€™s poem and reflection balances well with the more analytical essays in the book.
Within the second section of Createsâ€™ work:Â Works with Memory Maps, 1986-1991, is an essay titledÂ Marlene Creates, Visual GeographerÂ by Joan M. Schwartz. In this essay Schwartz frames Createsâ€™ practice within the field of geography, stating that Creates â€˜traffics in the geographical imagination, laying bare the processes by which people come to know the world and their place in it.â€™ (p.71) Schwartz highlights the ways in which Creates questions how we read the landscape and relates this to the â€˜terrain of historical and cultural geographers.â€™ (p.71)
So what is the â€˜geographical imaginationâ€™ that Marlene Creates â€˜trafficsâ€™? Schwartz describes how Creates questions idealised notions of a life on the land by showing how particular people relate to places withinÂ The Distance Between Two Points is Measured in MemoriesÂ â€“ mapping a â€˜â€œculturalâ€ experience of place.â€™ Schwartz quotes Createsâ€™ notion of place: â€˜â€œThe land is not an abstract physical location but a place, charged with personal significance, shaping the images we have of ourselves.â€â€™ (p.72) She states that â€˜it is in this foregrounding of place in the formation of identity that Creates excels as a visual geographer.â€™ (p.72)
Schwartz describes how Creates makes the layered meaning of places visible in her signs projects. For example, Creates juxtaposes a sign describing the coastline as â€˜Natural and Scenicâ€™ with a statement describing a previous industrial use of the land that played a significant role in forming the present day â€˜viewâ€™. This exposing of environmental histories is what Creates describes as the â€˜â€œintersection of geography with memory.â€â€™ (p.74) Schwartz argues that by â€˜exposing the tension between public and personal expressions of place, they [the signs] prompt private contemplation of oneâ€™s situation in space and time.â€™ (p.76)
In this essay Schwartz introduces a more geographically nuanced framework to explore many of the points already raised in the book. It seems a helpful insight to frame Createsâ€™ practice within the geographical imagination, as it highlights the tactics that Creates used and uses to interrogate our relationship to the land and to place. The revisiting of themes addressed by the first two essays does make for repetition, however. But the essay, in its own right, creates an interesting framework for reflecting on Createsâ€™ practice.
Robert Macfarlaneâ€™s essay,Â Hollow Places and Wordcaves, is placed within the third section of works:Â Signs of Our Time, 1992â€“2003. The essay starts with an entry from Samuel Taylor Coleridgeâ€™s journal describing his encounter with â€˜â€œA hollow place in the rock like a coffin.â€â€™ Macfarlane says that this description sprang to mind when he first encounteredÂ Sleeping Places, Newfoundland, 1982. As with McKay, but using different imagery, Macfarlane describes his layered response to this work and states that â€˜This wish to allow landscape its layeredness seems to me the defining quality of Createsâ€™s art.â€™ (p.101) He then goes on to make similar points to Gibson Garvey and Schwartz about Createsâ€™ refusal of romanticism and her interest in nature-culture relations. (Again, the repetition is noticeable.)
Macfarlane identifies the â€˜sensing bodyâ€™ as key to the making of Createsâ€™ work. He links this use of the body as an instrument of knowledge to a lineage of â€˜philosopher artistsâ€™ including Marcel Mauss, John Muir, Richard Jefferies, and Jacquetta Hawks and identifies a particularly strong link between Creates and Nan Shepherd. Macfarlane states that in her book,Â The Living Mountain, Nan Shepherd describes how â€˜she explored the Cairngorm Mountains of Scotland through her â€œfleshâ€ and â€œbonesâ€ as well as through her eyes.â€™ (p.102) He goes on to explore parallels between the two women â€“ sharing â€˜a fascination with place names and the language of place [â€¦] they share an interest in the seeming paradox of a â€œhumanised wildâ€.â€™ Macfarlane also describes a parallel between Shepherdâ€™s and Createsâ€™ attention to the particular in the landscapes that they attend to, and importantly their shared attention to the social history of place. Macfarlane points out both the ethnographic importance of this interest and that it acts as â€˜an active politics of what might be called resistance through specificity,â€™ particularly in Createsâ€™ questioning of notions of the empty wilderness of Labrador through memory mapping inÂ The Distance Between Two Points is Measured in Memories. (p.103)
This last point leads Macfarlane to link the work of Creates to others engaged in paying attention to the relationships that people have with specific places in order to resist â€˜generalisation and exploitation.â€™ These include Hugh Brodyâ€™sÂ Masterful Maps and DreamsÂ (1986), Iain Sinclairâ€™sÂ Ghost Milk, and the artistâ€™s bookletÂ A-mach an Gleann (A Known Wilderness), made by Jon MacLeod and Anne Campbell in response to the Outer Hebridean islanders fight with AMEC. (p.103)*
(At this point the reader may pause to reflect: set within the context of â€˜generalisation and exploitationâ€™, Createsâ€™ later boreal forest work raises questions that go unaddressed by Macfarlane and the other essayists. It could be argued, for example, that the later work maintains a quiet resistance through particular acts of attention. But this has a different quality to working in a context that is overtly exploited. To put it all too crudely â€“ a person standing in a deep state of mindfulness within occupied or disputed territories has a very different resonance to a person standing in an equally mindful state in their own garden.)
Macfarlane pays particular attention to Createsâ€™ interest in the relationship between language and landscape, which he describes as the â€˜illocutionary power of place-language: its ability to reform as well as to deform our relations with place.â€™ (p.105) Macfarlane maps this relationship of language and place in Createsâ€™ practice, fromÂ The Distance Between Two Points, through the signs projects and â€˜rising to a peak of intensity in her recent bookÂ Brickle Nish and Knobbly: A Newfoundland Treasury of Terms for Ice and Snow, Blast Hole Pond River, Winter 2012-2013.â€™ (p.104) All Createsâ€™ language projects highlight how the specificity of language can â€˜refine our acts of perception,â€™ and resist the homogenisation of dominant western culture. Here it is through seeing the differences in phenomena of ice and snow rather than â€˜a cold white blurâ€™ (p.105).
In addition to other pertinent analogies, Macfarlane ends his essay by quoting a poem by Paul Celan which includes the translated term â€˜â€œwordcavesâ€â€™. The wordcaves are places where language that has been emptied out can be made useful again. (p.106) With a beautiful symmetry Macfarlane relates this image back to the opening image of Coleridgeâ€™s â€˜â€œhollow placeâ€â€™, a space offering both shelter and hazard, as Createsâ€™Â Sleeping PlacesÂ appear both comfortable and exposed, weaving both the essay and Createsâ€™ practice into a satisfying sense of wholeness.
The final essay is the longest in the book and more academic in tone.Â In Here and Away: The Photography of Marlene Creates, Andrea Kunard discusses Createsâ€™ use of photography as a medium and the place of her work within photographic discourse.
The essay opens by questioning the notion of photography as a medium that â€˜stills time.â€™ (p.139) Kunard outlines an alternative reading of photography as process â€“ â€˜it engages individuals in actions, providing a performative space for its realisation.â€™ (p.139) She argues that the work of Creates fits far more easily into this process-performative category. Kunard uses Createsâ€™Â Paper, Stones and Water 1979-1985Â to illustrate this point, describing how these photographs contain all the surrounding activity of journey, thought and preparation that went into their making as well as the gesture caught in â€˜the performative space the photograph provides.â€™ The photographs also contain a sense of the time beyond their taking, the viewer sees a fragile material (paper) or stones on a shore that will soon be destroyed or rearranged by the elements. Another example is the knowledge that the squashed grasses in theÂ Sleeping PlacesÂ series will have already started to recover even in the instant of the camera shutterâ€™s click. As Kunard writes, â€˜Createsâ€™ projects reveal how photographs are performative acts or gestures that proclaim something real for the present, and retain it for the future.â€™ (p.141)
In her discussion ofÂ The Distance Between Two Points is Measured in Memories, Labrador 1988, Kunard highlights the importance of text in contextualising the photographs, and the role of the accompanying objects â€“ turf, sand etc. â€“ in bringing the work into the present for the viewer, â€˜nudging spectators into an appreciation of the object and present-ness of all the assemblagesâ€™ constituent elements.â€™ (p.142) She relates this to the power of a lock of hair tucked alongside a photograph in a nineteenth-century locket. The ability of photographs to strengthen family bonds is also discussed in relation to the family photograph album and Createsâ€™Â Places of Presence: Newfoundland kin and ancestral land, Newfoundland, 1989-1991Â (p.142)
Kunard argues that Creates combines the ability of the photograph to still time and reveal process in her Hand photographs. Later she also makes mention of what could be considered a more significant quality of these photographs â€“ their ability to show in fine detail the qualities and textures of stone, lichen, bark and skin. Interestingly it is in this essay that we first become aware that the boreal forest in which Createsâ€™ current work unfolds belongs to her, as Kunard discloses:
â€˜in the seriesÂ Larch, Spruce, Fir, Birch, Hand, Blast Hole Pond Road, Newfoundland 2007Â (ongoing), her hand, now much older, appears pressed against a tree trunk on the artistâ€™s property.â€™ (p.143)
(Another reader reflection: Creates never sets this later work within the context of property or ownership, perhaps because she does not consider the trees in the boreal forest to beÂ hers. Or perhaps she intuits that this knowledge would be distracting for the viewer. Nevertheless, reading the word â€˜propertyâ€™ immediately shifted how I read the work â€“ setting the hand in a possible gesture of claim or possession, jarring with my previous understanding of the work as communicating a sense of equal relationship. In balancing this tension it is important to note that the protection Createsâ€™ ownership brings to the six acres of boreal forest has enabled her to develop a deeply intimate relationship with this place, as shown powerfully through the workÂ Spots of Memory: what I remembered during one month away after six years on Blast Hole Pond Road, Newfoundland 2008Â where a hand-drawn map is filled with the artistâ€™s abbreviated descriptions of particular toponyms (descriptive names for places â€“ discussed in Macpharlaneâ€™s essay). This may not have been possible for Creates in the more vulnerable position of a â€˜visitorâ€™ rather than â€˜landownerâ€™. Hence the question: has this intimacy of knowledge now become a privilege of ownership and thus protection?)
The Kunard essay ends with a discussion ofÂ Water Flowing to the Sea Captured at the Speed of Light, Blast Hole Pond River, Newfoundland 2002-2003Â where Creates submerged a camera in the river to take photographs of the artist through the water. Kunard argues that this work â€˜personalises place, fusing the artist with the land.â€™(p.145) She also points out that this work introduces into Createsâ€™ practice a giving up of control over the outcome of the final image. This is further amplified in Createsâ€™ workÂ What Came to Light at Blast Hole Pond River, Newfoundland 2015Â (ongoing)Â where the camera shutter is triggered by the movement of animals through a motion detector. These works highlight Createsâ€™ use of the medium of photography as an evolving process rather than a static moment in time:
â€˜This use of photography as process is always a movement outwards; it is never static but engaging, never singular but informed by and informing other media, including language.â€™(p.146)
Indeed it is the randomness caught in the moment of the camera shutter inÂ What Came to LightÂ that highlight and emphasise the sense of a world full of motion and life beyond the picturesâ€™ limits. The book ends with these expansive photographs and thus opens out into the world beyond its pages.
When seen as a whole the images, commentary and essays ofÂ Marlene Creates: Places, Paths, and PausesÂ create a richly woven tapestry that enable the reader to gain insight and understanding into Createsâ€™ â€˜discreetâ€™ oeuvre; an oeuvre that I am pleased to have encountered and feel deserves greater recognition. (This is clearly the aim of the editors). However, as indicated by my â€˜reader reflectionsâ€™, the book as a whole is a touch too gentle. It clearly brings together reflections from those who hold the work of Creates in high regard. But it rarely poses critical questions that the work itself may be asking. This could have been amended by an interview with the artist, raising more probing questions about the work and its contexts. Equally, there is a little too much repetition in the points made and examples used in the essays, particularly in relation to Createsâ€™ ideas around place and a cultural reading of the landscape. More in-depth discussion of Createsâ€™ recent work might have created a greater balance and less repetition. The last word, however, is one of respect: Createsâ€™ work makes its powerful presence felt through its understated quietness. I am left with a reverberating sense of the layered histories present in the land around us, and a desire to walk more slowly and connect with the particularity of place.
* AMEC placed an application to site the UKâ€™s largest windfarm on what they repeatedly described as â€˜wasteâ€™ space and â€˜wildernessâ€™.
Sarah Gittins is a visual artist based in Edinburgh. She works across a variety of media, with a particular focus on drawing and printmaking. Her work explores issues of environmental justice, with a current emphasis on issues of climate change, resource use and food sustainability.
ecoartscotland is a resource focused on art and ecology for artists, curators, critics, commissioners as well as scientists and policy makers. It includes ecoartscotland papers, a mix of discussions of works by artists and critical theoretical texts, and serves as a curatorial platform.
It has been established byÂ Chris Fremantle, producer and research associate withÂ On The Edge Research,Â Grayâ€™s School of Art, The Robert Gordon University. Fremantle is a member of a number of international networks of artists, curators and others focused on art and ecology.