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More and more people are moving to cities. Over 50% of the worldâ€™s population are city dwellers, with a continuing upward trend. Many cities reach such a gigantic scale through non-stop influx as well as high birth rates. Tokyo, for years, ranks as No. 1, followed by Delhi, Mexico City, New York and Shanghai. These and other megacities, per definition with more than 5 or 10 million residents are the result of the enormous dynamic of our era. The most diverse perspectives and lifestyles converge in these metropolises. As important political, economic and cultural centers, they play a crucial role in the process of globalization.
We have only recently become more aware of their massive influence on climate change. The results of scientific studies are alarming: although they only make up 2% of the worldâ€™s surface, urban regions and megacities use roughly 80% of the worldâ€™s energy resources and produce approximately 85% of global greenhouse gas emissions! These cities, however, are not just contributors tot he problem, they are also the victims of global warming. Many of them are situated on coastlines and will have to struggle especially hard with future consequences. The increasingly frequent heat waves are also becoming more drastic. Urban areas are slow to cool down and form islands of heat whose temperature can be, as in the case of Tokyo, up to 13Â°C higher than the surrounding countryside.
Beginning on May 7, 2014, the ERES Foundation will be the host of an exhibition on this subject and will be holding related events that delve into the phenomenon of megacities as significant forces in global climate change.MegapolisÂ will show how these forces come into being and develop and why these regions have such a high proportion of worldwide CO2 emissions.
Scientists pose pressing questions: Can metropolises like Lima or Santiago de Chile survive in light of the fact that their water and electric power demands are being encroached upon by glaciers melting in the Andes? How can constantly rising demands for energy, water and food be met? What possibilities do megacities have in reducing CO2 emissions resulting from food wastage?
According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, aside from the worlwide tragedy of over 850 million people going hungry every day, if this wastage were integrated into a ranking of top emitters, it would appear third, after the USA and China. How does Singapore, one of the most densely populated cities in the world, prevent the usual chaos of traffic congestion, noise, exhaust fumes and smog? What are the consequences of covering large areas of the ground with asphalt and concrete? How do we envision intelligent waste and sewage disposal systems? How much does the enormous waste of electric light in neon advertising signs as well as street, building and industrial lighting affect their CO2 output and what are the economic and health consequences involved?
Georg Aerni,Â Peter Bialobrzeski,Â Adam Magyar,Â Ton Matton,Â Marjetica Potr?,Â Reynold Reynolds,Â Urban-Think Tank,Â MarkÂ Wallinger, as well as architectural concepts and designs fromÂ MVRDV, Rotterdam/Shanghai,Â WOHA Architects, Singapur andÂ Vincent Callebaut Architectures, Paris, among others
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This post is also available in:Â German
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– Sacha Kagan (based in LÃ¼neburg, Germany) and Rana Ã–ztÃ¼rk (based in Berlin, Germany)
– Oleg Koefoed and Kajsa Paludan (both based in Copenhagen, Denmark)
– Hans Dieleman (based in Mexico-City, Mexico)
– Francesca Cozzolino and David Knaute (both based in Paris, France)
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