The environment movement is failing because it has only a negative vision of the future. Discuss.
Thatâ€™s the nub of the argument suggested by Josie Appleton of the Manifesto Club in herÂ essaythat we published last week, and one echoed by Emma Ridgwayâ€™s recent article for theRETHINK exhibition catalogue. Environmentalism, the argument goes, is about limiting possibilities. Itâ€™s about what we shouldnâ€™t do. Appleton believes that art has a visionary role in thinking beyond this drought of possiblity; humanity must instead accept its place as the species that transformed the earth â€“ we must take on that leap of consciousness when we start to think of solutions and not start from the romantic baseline of earth as a wilderness, despoiled by man. We must move forwards, not back.
A radical idea. And the polar opposite to another radical idea proposed recently by poet/writer/activist Paul Kingsnorth and Dougald Hine. For them and theirÂ Dark Mountain Project, human civilisation itself is the toxic factor that has plunged the earth into crisis. In the blink of an eye â€“ the five thousand years or soÂ in whichÂ humanity has accelerated towards modern civilisation â€“ we have so stamped over the intricacies of nature that the wheel is now flying off the machine. We must prepare our exit from civilisation, for â€œuncivilisationâ€. In the visual arts, this has echoes in the recent work of Heather and Ivan Morison, whoseÂ How to prosper in the coming bad years discussion takes place inÂ The Black Cloud (see above) next weekend in Bristol.
Art, a place where the imagination can roam to extremes, is an excellent laboratory for ideas.Â The Dark Mountain Project finds its inspiration in literature, particularly in the poetry of Robinson Jeffers â€“ the Californian who shared a romantic vision of wilderness with environmentalist Edward Abbey, referred toÂ below. It was Jeffers who had first suggested the idea ofÂ â€œinhumanismâ€ thatÂ inspired the Dark Mountain Project. Human civilisation was, Jeffers suggested, always too self-centred to understand the complexity and beauty of the world around it. The Dark Mountain Project also plant their flag in the literature of Joseph Conrad and his â€œheart of darknessâ€.
There have been someÂ interesting responses to the Dark Mountain provocation. In theÂ New Statesman,Â John Gray responded to the Dark Mountain provocation by demonstrating that literature has in fact been much more successful at showing the catastrophic results of â€œuncivilisationâ€ than eulolgising it. There is nothing romantic about the crumbling of civil society. Gray too cites Joseph Conrad, to make the point that Conrad, like J G Ballard â€“ shows the genuineÂ horror of what a society in disintegration actually looks like. Both Conrad and Ballard were witness to the atrocities that happen when the crust of civilization is removed.
(On a sidenote, Paul Kingsnorth and I have disagreedÂ elsewhere about whether Cormac MacCarthyâ€™sÂ The Road is a novel primarily about climate change. Grayâ€™s line of argumentÂ reminds you that MacCarthyâ€™s book, in which baby-eating survivors scavage the land,Â displays the awful consequence of uncivilisation.)
But as both suggest, itâ€™s time to rexamine the givens. Environmentalism hasnâ€™t produced the major shift in culture that the global warming era requires. Something radical has to shift.Â Appletonâ€™s idea is that to save civilisation we need more civilisation, not less:
The anthropocene is here, and there is no way back. To wish that we could retreat is the mythical fantasy of wishing that we never ate the apple or stole the fire. It is a wish that we were children again, back in a former stage of history. We cannot reverse out of the anthropocene but only go forward.
I doubt John Gray would quite see eye to eye with Appletonâ€™s thesis either. Grayâ€™s bookÂ Straw Dogs was a vigorous assault on the idea of that idea of human centrality in nature. Appletonâ€™s argument is unashamedly anthropocentric; in fact the very notion of the anthropocene, by definition, is a human-centred concept. Gray follows James Lovelock: such assumptions of human supremacy over nature are fundamentally arrogant and hubristic.Â Myself, I find the technological postivism of Appletonâ€™s approach hard to embrace. Above all, I donâ€™t believe, as she does, that, â€ The climate moves slowly; we have time.â€
The Black Cloud by Heather and Ivan Morison (Bristol, 2009)photographed byÂ ac (y su camarÃ³fono)
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