Expo 1: New York, focuses on some of the most pressing environmental and sociopolitical issues of the day. It takes the urgent and pragmatic sensibility of â€œDark Optimismâ€ as its position. Dark Optimism addresses ecological challenges set against the backdrop of economic turmoil and sociopolitical upheaval that has made a dramatic impact on daily life. In response to these global challenges, the magazine and editorial collective Triple Canopy calls for â€œdark optimism,â€ an attitude that encompasses both the seeming end of the world and its beginning, one that is positioned on the brink of apocalypse and the onset of unprecedented technological transformation. Climate change has generated storms, droughts, and floods that occur with greater frequency and severity. Economic volatility around the world has precipitated political action, giving rise to manifestations and uprisings in regions such as Northern Africa, the Middle East, Western Europe, and New Yorkâ€™s Wall Street. Meanwhile technological innovations and novel architectural initiatives offer the tantalizing promise of a brighter future. Recent advancements have facilitated communication â€“ which at times has helped organize political protests-as well as access to information with such ease and volume that it threatens to become overwhelming in scale. The works exhibited in Dark Optimism make note of these paradoxical conditions and the instabilities of both natural and artificial systems. – wall text at PS1 MoMA
Iâ€™ve made three visits to PS1 MoMAâ€™s exhibition Expo 1: New York, Dark Optimism, and have tried unsuccessfully to find anything in the exhibition that reflects the museum wall statement quoted above. As a curator who has focused on working with ecological artists for over a decade, I went to PS1 with excitement to see this challenge (finally) being taken on by a major New York institution for contemporary art. The show was organized with good intentions in direct response to the effects of last yearâ€™s Hurricane Sandy and its far-reaching impact on our local environment and economy, on coastal communities and in New York City. Unfortunately I have to express my disappointment. The works in the exhibition refer to the title Dark Optimism,Â presenting the dark, apocalyptic and catastrophic in current art trends. Â My co-curator of the landmark 2002 exhibition Ecovention, Sue Spaid, aptly calls it â€œcatastrophe artâ€ in her review below. Sadly missing are examples of the many important artists working today whose efforts do offer some cautious optimism. Our environmental situation is dire to say the least. Myriad issues conspire towards our demise – climate change; land, sea and air pollution from the relentless extraction of fossil fuels; oil spills and nuclear leaks; habitat destruction; species extinctions; the list goes on and on.
In the New York area alone there are numerous artists, established and emerging, making profound and inspiring works that tackle these issues, but they are not represented in this exhibition. Brandon Ballengee, Lillian Ball, Joan Bankemper, Jackie Brookner, Betsy Damon, Michele Brody, Wendy Brawer, Mel Chin, Elizabeth Demaray, Peter Fend, Katie Holten, Natalie Jeremijenko, Kristin Jones, Eve Andree Laramee, Ellen Levy, Lenore Malen, Mary Miss, Maria Michaels, Mary Mattingly, Aimee Morgana, Eve Mosher, Leila Christine Nadir, Cary Peppermint, Aviva Rahmani, Andrea Reynosa, Christy Rupp, Jenna Spevack, Alan Sonfist, Katrin Spiess, Tattfoo Tan, Mierle Ukeles, â€“ to name a few. And that list doesnâ€™t include the many artists outside of New York, internationally, or the hundreds of painters and photographers who make work representing and bringing awareness to environmental issues. No exhibition can be completely inclusive â€“ but a show on ecological challenges in New York City has been long awaited and this is a real missed opportunity to give the topic the seriousness and depth it deserves.
Thanks to the daily programming of lectures, debates and discussion by Triple Canopy at PS1 in conjunction with the exhibition – Speculations (â€œThe Future is____________â€). A few of the artists I mentioned above, Natalie Jeremijenko, Mary Mattingly and Mierle Ukeles (and Agnes Denes, the one historical ecological artist included in the show) were invited to come discuss their visions for the future and give a presentation on their works that go beyond addressing environmental challenges to offering creative, imaginative and pragmatic approaches to the dire problems we face. That is what I call optimism.
Expo 1: New York â€œDark Optimismâ€ remains on view through September 2, at MoMA PS1
Curator ecoartspace NY
Expo 1: New York
Dark OptimismÂ May 12-September 2, MoMA PS1
Rain RoomÂ May 12-July 28, MoMA, West Lot
SchoolÂ May 13-July 28, MoMA PS1
According to its press release, Expo 1 is a â€œfestival-as-institution,â€ enabling people to explore â€œecological challenges in the context of 21st century economic and socio-political instability.â€ This statement indicates MoMA PS1â€™s neoliberal delusion, since instabilities rather mitigate â€œecological challenges.â€ Consider Europeâ€™s diminished car sales since 2008. Greater stability typically invites capital investments and development, which deplete natural resources and animal habitat, while intensifying climate change, flooding, desertification, and groundwater contamination. Consider the BRICS nations, whose swelling ecological challenges reflect their expanding ecological footprints.
Dark Optimism, which assembles 35 solo exhibitions, is the satellite around which Expo 1 revolves. The curatorial team (more than twenty collaborators) has also organized a school (50+ Triple Canopy events), kitchen garden (for M. Wells dishes), colony inhabiting cultural agents, cinema, ProBio (mini-expo), community center (VW geodesic dome sited in Rockaway to showcase relief shelters and 25 proposed climate-change survival plans), and Rain Room. As compared to Olafur Eliassonâ€™s magical Your strange certainty still kept (1996), the high-tech Rain Room adjacent MoMA eradicates wonder. The metaphorical approach of the smaller exhibition ProBio fails to uncover anything remarkable as compared to works by dozens of artists who explore technologyâ€™s actual impact on human bodies.
The curators claim that the presence of so many simultaneous activities enables PS1 to experiment with â€œsocial practice,â€ yet none of the invited artists are especially known for sparking conversations or engaging unsuspecting spectators. Absent merry makers, â€œsocial practiceâ€ is reduced to ever more festival spectacles and educational programs. Of the fifty artists, filmmakers, and novelists invited to lecture and/or lead discussions in response to Triple Canopyâ€™s suggestion, â€œThe future is___â€, only Ruth DeFries, Natalie Jeremijenko, Agnes Denes, Mary Mattingly, and Mierle Laderman Ukeles confront ecological issues. This dearth of eco-personnel further devalues this festivalâ€™s stated goals.
Opposing Dark Optimism is The Politics of Contemplation, fifty dramatic Ansel Adams photographs from 1932 to 1968. Shot mostly in Yosemite National Park, Yellowstone National Park, and the San Mateo County Coast, they record natureâ€™s fragility and majesty. One might say that Dark Optimism â€œsurveys a landscape of wilderness and ruins, darkened by uncertain catastrophe. Humankind is being eclipsed and new ecological systems struggle to find a precocious balance.â€ However, I am quoting the New Museumâ€™s 2008 press release for Against Nature. As a trilogy, Against Nature,Â September 11Â (2011), and Dark OptimismÂ launch a new genre, â€œcatastrophe art.â€
Exemplary of stabilityâ€™s role in augmenting ecological challenges, Olafur Eliassonâ€™s Your waste of time (2006/2013) presents twelve glacier chunks transported from VatnajÃ¶koll (Icelandâ€™s largest glacier) and displayed in a solar-powered refrigerated gallery. Equally cynical is Cinthia Marcelleâ€™s video depicting a bulldozer performing crazy eights atop an already flattened field. Equally over-the-top is AdriÃ¡n Villar Rojasâ€™ La inocencia de los animales (2013), an indoor amphitheater whose colossal scale evokes Berlinâ€™s Pergamon Museum. With its simultaneous references to antiquity and post-apocalyptic Earth, La inocencia seems straight out of Planet of the Apes. Absent bathers, Meg Websterâ€™s reconstructed Pool (1998/2013) makes promises but negates possibilities, which is this exhibitionâ€™s leitmotif.
By presenting artworks focused on natural or manmade catastrophes, Dark Optimism overlooks artistsâ€™ endeavors to prophesy or alleviate preventable disasters. Rather than exhibit any of the novel ecological solutions that dozens of ingenious artists working on every continent have implemented â€”over the past forty yearsâ€”the curators present artworks that merely react to our planetâ€™s terrible situation, leaving Earthâ€™s ill-health as yet another arena for appropriation. Colonization offers a better description. In this context, Agnes Denesâ€™ Wheatfield:A Confrontation, which presaged Wall Streetâ€™s ascendancy and global food shortages, is less a testament to human potential and more a nostalgic monument to pre-9/11 innocence. Once a clever solution, Gordon Matta-Clarkâ€™s Fresh Air Cart (1972) is now a sign portending doom. One leaves thinking, â€œWhatâ€™s bad for Earth is good for art,â€ as if disaster photographs now provide artistic inspiration. Peter Buggenhoutâ€™s three fascinating sculptures evoke mud-encrusted metal structures, while Anna Bettbeze fabulous wall hangings hint at acid-stained or flood-ravished carpets.
John MIller, A Refusal to Accept Limits (detail), 2012
The curators claim that Dark Optimism reflects the future that is, â€œif you want it to be there,â€ yet few artists here glance forward and most treat catastrophes too lightly. Given wolvesâ€™ moose diets, Mircea Cantorâ€™s short video Deeparture (2005) proved to be incredibly scary, as I envisioned the wolf devouring its lone cohabitant. Belittling lynchings, Mark Dionâ€™s Killers Killed (2004-2007) features nine tarred and lynched predators. As remarks on consumer excess, Klara LidÃ©nâ€™s nine trashy trashcans and John Millerâ€™s gold-plated recyclables feel trite.
No â€œcatastrophe artâ€ exhibition would feel complete without Chris Burdenâ€™s model Titanic ships balanced on the Eifel Tower, Latifa Echakhchâ€™s shattered tea-glass installation, Mitch Epsteinâ€™s menacing power-plant photographs, PaweÅ‚ Althamerâ€™s outerspace zombies, or Pierre Huygheâ€™s staged battle between elegant arrow crabs and a hermit crab inhabiting Brancusiâ€™s Sleeping Muse.
Premised on utopiaâ€™s twin promises of harmonious nature and technological liberation, â€œcatastrophe artâ€ actually distracts us from Earthâ€™s generosity, leaving us unwilling to face our destructiveness fully and practically. Only Ugo Rondinoneâ€™s sensorial soundscape and Dan Attoeâ€™s intriguing paintings rise above this exhibitionâ€™s passivity towards disaster, precisely because they invite possibility. Attoeâ€™s hidden messages warn people to pay attention to past mistakes, and remind us, â€œThis world has everything that you could ever want.â€
This review first appeared in Issue 113 of H art, a Flemish art journal
Natalie Jeremijnko top and Mierle Ukeles bottom (photos: Amy Lipton) from Triple Canopy’s School at PS1Â Speculations (â€œThe Future is____________â€)Â
ecoartapace ecoartspace is a nonprofit platform providing opportunities for artists who address the human/nature relationship in the visual arts. Since 1999 they have collaborated with over 150 organizations to produce more than 40 exhibitions, 100 programs, working with 400 + artists in 15 states nationally and 8 countries internationally. Currently they are developing a media archive of video interviews with artists and collection of exhibitions ephemera for research purposes. Patricia Watts is founder and west coast curator. Amy Lipton is east coast curator and director of the ecoartspace NYC project room.
A project of the Social and Environmental Entrepreneurs since 1999
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