What kind of Â insulation to use? Â How to balance all the variables â€“ sustainable, healthy materials that are also efficient. Â No sense using green materials that arenâ€™t going to be good insulators in a trailer warm or cool, as needed.
Spartans are the best trailers. The body, which is made from airplane material, contributes about 70% of the trailerâ€™s strength; the rest of the strength is in the chassis.Â An Airstream is about 50-50%.Â For other trailers, itâ€™s all in the chassis [i.e. the body is basically useless.]
Timeless Travel uses PIC insulation
We use PIC insulation which is fiberglass without formaldehyde. Â It has an R5 value, which is best you can do with a Spartan, which has an average depth of 2â€ on the wall.Â Insects donâ€™t like it and [I think he said it is fire resistant.]Â Once installed, it has an R10-R13 value.Â We use foil tape. The PIC has a lot higher R value than other stuff; we install it in panels. Â PIC insulation is fairly green, doesnâ€™t outgas. Â When installed, it creates a vapor barrier.
There is a lot of exhaust inside the trailer, from cooking, heating, showers, even humans [people give off 2 liters of water/day.]Â That goes to the outside of the skin. Â The air gap helps air from getting in and also air going out.
Steven Harasim, chemical engineer with Aerogel
Q: Â We have a limited budget, but we are interested in following up with your idea of using strips of Aerogel (Thermogel) over the ribs along with some other form of insulation. Â What is the R-value of Aerogel?
Our product has an R4 value for each layer (the idea is to layer it). Harasimâ€™sÂ idea was to use some other kind of insulation in the gaps and then use strips of aerogel over the metal ribs before putting the paneling on (see the above photo where exposed metal ribs arenâ€™t covered by insulation.)
Harasim says this method would get rid of the thermal bridge where the steel is in direct connection with the paneling which is very inefficient, thermally.
He said steel has a conductivity far greater than wood. When the metal is Â exposed and it touches the walls it acts as a much larger sink in terms of conductivity Â than even the gap in between where the insulation would normally go. Â So the idea is to isolate that contact by putting a strip of Aerogel on the metal beams.
Santa Clara University’s submission for the 2009 Solar Decathlon
Harasim mentioned the Solar Decathlon (http://www.solardecathlon.gov/about.cfm), a competition sponsored by the Department of Energy Â where college students design homes that are almost entirely net zero homes.Â According to Harasim, Areogel was used in 4 out of 10 of the winning designs, including the Refract House (photo above) a collaborative effort between the University of Santa Clara and California College of the Arts (click to downloadÂ PDF of project manual,Â Â lower right column)
Coincidentally, Harasim actually used to work for the PIC insulation company that makes the stuff that Timeless Travels uses.Â He says it is an â€œadequate solutionâ€.Â From looking at theÂ pictures I showed him he said, he says â€œIt is well insulated.Â The only downside is that the still the steel studs are still exposed.â€
He continued:Â â€œWhat is difficult about the Spartan is the varying cavity size.Â But I donâ€™t see anything wrong with this solution. The PIC foam would be a mid point solution.Â The aluminum foil is 100 percent recyclable.Â The foam is not but it has a higher R-value than other foams per mass basis.Â It is more efficient than other insulation.
Question:Â Is the PIC insulation â€œgreenâ€?
Harasim: Â Itâ€™s hard to describe insulation as being â€œun-greenâ€ since its primary objective is to save energy [I suppose some people could argue with that statement]
Q:Â Does you think it would be more green to use something like a newspaper product?
The newspaper, being 100 percent recycled would be an advantage, but overall probably not because of the insulation value and the difficulty of installing it in a trailer.
Q: Â Do you think Areogel might be willing to donate some materials or otherwise help with the cost?
We arenâ€™t against it but they are stretched pretty thin right now. We are a new company and have already been donating (I bet to the Dethlon).Â But he would help with advise on the installation.Â And the strips actually come from a different company, Thermal Block, and they may be able to work with you as well.Â Heâ€™ll give me all the info.
Note: Timeless Travel uses a different kind of insulation in the floor. (I donâ€™t remember why).Â He may have said the stuff is styrene or else fiberglass??
New chaissis, Timeless Travel
Timeless Travelâ€™s Brett Hall said Spartan trailer chassis often have structural problems, especially from the wheels back.Â â€œWe start looking right away for problems.â€ Â About 40% of the Spartans have serious problems, about 10% need work. Â (It should be noted, however, that Timeless Travel tends to add 2,000 â€“ 3,000 additional pounds on average to their renovated (high end) restorations.
Note: Â Hall said the original Spartan chasis were built by a third party.
Hall added that itâ€™s very important to pay attention to wiring. Â The trailer must conform to the National fire Protection Associationâ€™s Standards for Recreational Vehicles (NFPA 1192)
Twenty five hours of work and the ceiling/walls have been cleared of leftover fiberglass insulation. The job was pretty mindless but I donâ€™t mind that kind of work, especially after a long day of class.Â The only trouble was protecting myself from the fiberglass: coveralls, respirator, goggles, gloves etc. Itâ€™s not too pleasant when itâ€™s hot outside, so I ended up doing a lot of work at night.
Once I removed all the insulation, I used a shop vac to clean out the inside.Â Finally got rid of a lot of the rat droppings, dust etc. (It smells a lot better in there all of a sudden!)
After some trial and error with different portable saws, I found that the circular saw worked best to cut out the plywood while avoiding the steel frame beneath it. I cut small pieces at a time and popped them out with two crowbars.
In the process, I found a Ninja Turtles pencil caseâ€¦
and some old newspaper clippings stuck to the linoleum. 1985 newspaper clipping from Redding, CA.
The clippings were from Redding, in Northern California.Â Such an odd coincidence. Â I recently bought a second vintage trailer, a tiny 1960 Corsa camper trailer, now parked next to the Spartan, which I use as my hang out.
1960 Corsa: My home away from home away from home...
It came from a town near Redding: Big Bend, CA, located near Mt. Shasta.The previousÂ owners were a couple I now consider to be my friends â€“ Bern Haggard and Eviane Cotton.
Homesteaders Bern and Eviane
In addition to their responsibilities on their 80-acre homestead, they are restoring the townâ€™s old campground complete with old hot springs!
The campground at Big Bend (not yet open) will feature soaking pools built into a cliff that overlooks the Pit River.
The Pit River as seen from the soaking pool.
Eventually, Bern and Eviane also with others, also hope to transform the townâ€™s trailer park into an eco village (current residents will stay if they wish)
Back to my own trailer projectâ€¦
The shower/bathroom unit needs to come out. Itâ€™s unsalvageable, unfortunately. We debated whether to clean it up and re-use but the thing is gross and falling apart.
Yes, we actually considered trying to save the metal bathroom unit.
The bathroom unit is all one piece. It will not fit out through the doorway so it will have to be sawed out.. a job for later. Â I did manage to rip out the linoleum flooring inside the bathroom, just to see what was underneath. Bad news is the aluminum floor under the linoleum is in bad shape. Itâ€™s going to have to go, too.
One of the previous owners caped off the shower head and installed new flooring.Â (It seems they only used the toilet and sink.)
As I rip away the flooring throughout the trailer Iâ€™ve found more nasty insulation, rat droppings and all sorts of presents left behind by pack rats.
Speaking of which, I have a new roommate in the trailer. When I lifted up a piece of floorboard, a little mouse scurried away. I donâ€™t mind the company.
Oh, and today, we had our first rain! No apparent leaks, except of course from the missing windows and skylight, but I didnâ€™t look too closely. Iâ€™m not ready to deal with that yet. Small steps.
I want to get the old floor out as soon as possible. I canâ€™t wait to get rid of all the insulation. I wonâ€™t feel itâ€™s a clean slate until that happensâ€¦
From Â Â www.Spartantrailer.com Â (interior restoration)
Before any refinishing was done all leaks in the trailer had to be sealed. I used a liquid seam sealing product called Capt. Tollyâ€™s. This is a marine product which has a capillary action by which it draws itself into the crack and hardens. Vulkem 116 Sealant was used for larger seams.. Another option is to coat the interior with a gas tank sealer such as POR-15. to create a water tight seal.
Daniel Riedemann is a native of Kansas and fifth generation Â carpenter who learned specialty restoration from his father and grandfather. He uses his 1951 restored Spartan as an office and home away from home. Â He offeres his advice about green trailer restorations.
Dan runs Nineteenth Century Restorations, a company with a focus on historic preservation, using designs that meet or exceed current energy efficiency standards. Â On job sites he salvages reusable materials
and reclaimed lumber. Â Dan says he likes to build homes that are as green as possible, but there arenâ€™t a lot of clients who go as green as he would like. Â The Spartan was a chance to do it his way.
Historic restoration of an Ohio home by 19th Century Restorations.
Dan takesto the road in his 1951 Spartan when heâ€™s working on projects for the U.S. Corps of Engineers and the National Park Service. Â Have a quick look at his trailer in this You Tube clip (no audio): Here are Danâ€™s thoughts on some current issues Sam is dealing with in his Spartan restoration project:Insulation I used spray foam insulation kits [he will supply the name]. Itâ€™s a great product, made out of soybean products, so you arenâ€™t letting toxic fumes out in the atmosphere. Â Itâ€™s easy to apply.Â You should make it about one-inch thick.Â Â In your trailer, Â it could be done with about three or four kits (each â€œkitâ€ costs between $400-600.) I would spray the foam about 1â€ thick being careful not to completely refill the cavity. After that I went in with foil back bubble wrap, the stuff used to wrap pipe.Â Comes in 400 ft. rolls. Â [Note:Â polycene.Â Will correct this.Â another guy told me he thinks you can get the lefover bits Â of this stuff for free.] I replaced all that old Kimsul, which was fiberglass and basically Â useless.Â Youâ€™ll end up with about an R15. The The outer aluminum skin can really heat up.Â But the heat stays in the gap in between. I live in Kansas where summers can be humid and the temperatures can get up into the 100â€™s.Â Â Iâ€™ve got an air conditioner in there but the unit is not fighting the heat. Hot Water Heaters I use an instant hot water heater that runs off of propane. It heats up the pipes that the water is go through, so you only use it when the water is on. They have been using that system in Europe for years.Â It is a great technology . It is in my front closet with room left over.Â The shower in my Spartan is better than the one I have at home.
Metal bathroom unit on a 1951 Spartan Credit: Jane Keeler.Flickr
â€¦that yucky metal bathroom unit, keep it? Yes.Â I kept mine. Belly pan The original pan in mine was in excellent shape.Â I just had to replace the spot by the bathroom.Â I recommend using the same kind of product. Itâ€™s like an MDF fiberglass.Â Iwould do it all new and use a marine grade epoxy to fasten it. I haul my Spartan a lot for the job, so I want mine sealed really well and not affect by the heat and water.Â Itâ€™s called a masonite belly pan but itâ€™s not exactly masonite.
Belly pan for a vintage Ultra trailer. Credit: basicofbasics on photobucket
I suggest you call a couple of lumberyards or specialty wood shops and ask for the thinnest MDF material that they have.Â Â¾â€ Â or 3/8â€.Â Â The product is slicker on one side (the side that isnâ€™t as slick goes againstÂ the belly.)Â I would definitely waterproof the pan.Â And I would use foam insulation between the two.Â In the center of the trailer you have five inches of insulation and then it narrows up to the sides because of the shape of the curve.Â I used plain old yellow fiberglass when I restored my Sparta, Â but if I was to do it again I would use spray foam.
Belly pan with liquid chaser. Credit: bluessafari.blogspot.com
Great post from Josh Healey on Life is Living 2010
So what sustains life in Oakland? In addition to live performances by local legends The Coup, Los Rakas, and The Getback, in addition to the face-painting and the hip-hop petting zoo (no lie), in addition to thousands of people from across the Bay Area diaspora enjoying a beautiful day at the park, hereâ€™s some photos I got that highlight some of the answers we find here in The Town.